Wednesday, October 27, 2010
Deathday: Mystery Writer James M. Cain
James Mallahan Cain (July 1, 1892 – October 27, 1977) was an American author and journalist. Although Cain himself vehemently opposed labelling, he is usually associated with the hardboiled school of American crime fiction and seen as one of the creators of the roman noir. Several of his crime novels inspired highly successful movies.
Cain was born into an Irish Catholic family in Annapolis, Maryland. The son of a prominent educator and an opera singer, he had inherited his love for music from his mother, but his high hopes of starting a career as a singer himself were thwarted when she told him that his voice was not good enough. After graduating from Washington College where his father, James W. Cain served as president, in 1910, Cain began working as a journalist for the Baltimore Sun.
Cain was drafted into the United States Army and spent the final year of World War I in France writing for an Army magazine.
Back in the States, he continued working as a journalist writing editorials for the New York World and articles for American Mercury. He briefly served as the managing editor of The New Yorker, but later turned to screenplays and finally to fiction.
Although Cain spent many years in Hollywood working on screenplays, his name only appears on the credits of three films: Algiers, Stand Up and Fight, and Gypsy Wildcat.
Cain's first novel, The Postman Always Rings Twice, was published in 1934. Two years later the serialized Double Indemnity was published.
Cain made use of his love of music and of the opera in particular in at least three of his novels: Serenade (about an American opera singer who loses his voice and who, after spending part of his life south of the border, re-enters the States illegally with a Mexican prostitute in tow); Mildred Pierce (in which, as part of the subplot, the only daughter of a successful businesswoman trains as an opera singer); and Career in C Major, a short semi-comic novel about the unhappy husband of an aspiring opera singer who unexpectedly discovers that he has a better voice than she does (Cain's fourth wife, Florence Macbeth, was a retired opera singer).
American Authors' Authority
In July 1946, Cain wrote an article for Screen Writer magazine in which he proposed the creation of an American Authors' Authority to hold writers' copyrights and represent the writers in contract negotiations and court disputes. This idea was dubbed the "Cain plan" in the media. The plan was denounced as Communist by some writers, who formed the American Writers Association to oppose it. Although Cain worked vigorously to promoted the Authority, it did not gain widespread support and the idea died.
Cain was married to Mary Clough in 1919. The marriage ended in divorce and he promptly married Elina Sjösted Tyszecka. Although Cain never had any children of his own, he was close to Elina's two children from a prior marriage. In 1944 Cain married film actress Aileen Pringle, but the marriage was a tempestuous union and dissolved in a bitter divorce two years later. Cain married for the fourth time to Florence Macbeth, an opera singer. Their marriage lasted until her death in 1966.
Cain continued writing up to his death at the age of 85. However, the many novels he published from the late 1940s onward never rivaled his earlier successes.
"I make no conscious effort to be tough, or hard-boiled, or grim, or any of the things I am usually called. I merely try to write as the character would write, and I never forget that the average man, from the fields, the streets, the bars, the offices, and even the gutters of his country, has acquired a vividness of speech that goes beyond anything I could invent, and that if I stick to this heritage, this logos of the American countryside, I shall attain a maximum of effectiveness with very little effort."
(from the Preface to Double Indemnity)
(with the dates of the first book publication)
Our Government (1930)
The Postman Always Rings Twice (1934)
Mildred Pierce (1941)
Love's Lovely Counterfeit (1942)
Career in C Major and Other Stories (1943)
Double Indemnity (1943) (first published in Liberty Magazine, 1936)
The Embezzler (1944) (first published as Money and the Woman, Liberty Magazine, 1938)
Past All Dishonor (1946)
The Butterfly (1947)
The Moth (1948)
Sinful Woman (1948)
Jealous Woman (1950)
The Root of His Evil (1951) (also published as Shameless)
The Magician's Wife (1965)
Rainbow's End (1975)
The Institute (1976)
The Baby in the Icebox (1981); short stories
Cloud Nine (1984)
The Enchanted Isle (1985)
The following films were adapted from Cain's novels and stories.
She Made Her Bed, USA, 1934, directed by Ralph Murphy (story "The Baby in the Icebox")
Le Dernier tournant, France, 1939, directed by Pierre Chenal (novel The Postman Always Rings Twice)
Ossessione, Italy, 1943, directed by Luchino Visconti (novel The Postman Always Rings Twice, uncredited)
Double Indemnity, USA, 1944, directed by Billy Wilder
Mildred Pierce, USA, 1945, directed by Michael Curtiz
The Postman Always Rings Twice, USA, 1946, directed by Tay Garnett
Slightly Scarlet, USA, 1956, directed by Allan Dwan (novel Love's Lovely Counterfeit)
Serenade, USA, 1956, directed by Anthony Mann
The Postman Always Rings Twice, USA, 1981, directed by Bob Rafelson
Butterfly, USA, 1982, directed by Matt Cimber
Girl in the Cadillac, USA, 1995, directed by Lucas Platt (novel The Enchanted Isle)
1.^ West, James L. W. (1990). American Authors and the Literary Marketplace Since 1900. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1330-0.
2.^ Fine, Richard (1992). James M. Cain and the American Authors' Authority. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-74024-7.
Hoopes, Roy (1982). Cain. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0030493315.